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I led development of the 25-Item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) with colleagues in the United States and Japan, particularly Dr. Takahiro Kato of Kyushu University. It is a self‐administered questionnaire used to assess hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal and an emerging mental health issue.

 

The HQ-25 is scored between 0-100, with higher scores representing more severe symptoms of hikikomori. Forty-two (42) is a proposed cutoff score indicating risk for hikikomori. The HQ-25 consists of three factors: lack of sociality, isolation, and lack of emotional support. This measure has only been validated as a way to assess severity of hikikomori symptoms over the past 6 months. Other uses have not been validated.

Language
Developer(s)
Translated/Back Translated
Conducted validation study
Published in peer-reviewed journal
Chinese
Hu Ting, 2022
Yes
Yes
In Progress
English
Teo et al., 2018
Yes
Yes
Yes
French 1
Geraldine Dorard & Nancy Pionnié-Dax, 2021
Yes
In Progress
In Progress
French 2
Marie Jeanne Guedj & Xavier Benarous, 2021
Yes
In Progress
In Progress
Italian 1
Amendola et al., 2021
Yes
Yes
In Progress
Italian 2
Fino et al., 2022
Yes
Yes
Yes
Japanese
Teo et al., 2018
Yes
Yes
Yes
Korean
Je et al., 2022
Yes
Yes
Yes
Romanian
Coca et al., 2021
Yes
In Progress
Unknown
Russian
Lyakina & Fedorov, 2021
Yes
Yes
No
Spanish
Barquero Morales, 2021
No
No
No
Turkish
Gündoğmuş et al., 2021
Yes
Yes
Yes

Chinese

Hu Ting, 2022

French 2

Guedj & Xavier Benarous, 2021

English

Teo et al., 2018

Italian 1

Amendola et al., 2021

French 1

Dorard & Pionnié-Dax, 2021

Italian 2

Fino et al., 2021

Japanese

Teo et al., 2018

Korean

Je et al., 2022

Romanian

Coca et al., 2021

Russian

Lyakina & Fedorov, 2021

Spanish

Barquero Morales, 2021

Turkish

Gündoğmuş et al., 2021

If you experience any issues, please contact us here. However, if you are interested in adapting the original 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) into a new language, please complete this form